Alice Ramos: “Reflexões metodologicas à volta de um inquérito sobre jovens”

Alice Ramos (ICS-UL) realizou uma apresentação intitulada “Reflexões metodologicas à volta de um inquérito sobre jovens”, cujo conteúdo partiu do seguinte estudo recentemente publicado:

https://www.ffms.pt/FileDownload/f2d755a7-044a-42f1-ac22-a58dc3fa166b/os-jovens-em-portugal-hoje

 

 

Renato Lima: “Mecanismos de pressão política dos parlamentares brasileiros junto às agências reguladoras independentes: as razões dos atritos existentes na relação institucional entre reguladores e legisladores”

Renato Lima has presented his updated research design with the following title : “Mecanismos de pressão política dos parlamentares brasileiros junto às agências reguladoras independentes: as razões dos atritos existentes na relação institucional entre reguladores e legisladores”.

Here follows the abstract:

As autoridades reguladoras independentes são consideradas um importante avanço no desenho
institucional das democracias modernas, a coibir falhas de mercado em setores cuja presença governamental foi delegada a empreendedores privados. Contudo, a regulação vem sofrendo contestação, especialmente pelos legisladores, que desejam modificar as escolhas regulatórias por meio de pressões políticas. Se tais mudanças não ocorrem, surgem atritos, que podem ser de maior ou menor intensidade a depender do tipo de setor regulado, do comportamento do político e do impacto que o assunto tem perante a população. No caso do Brasil, país escolhido para a análise desta tese, a situação não é diferente. A pergunta de investigação é a seguinte: o que existe no desenho institucional do modelo regulatório brasileiro que faz com que as agências reguladoras sejam tão pressionadas pelos parlamentares? A literatura brasileira e internacional é bastante rica ao estudar esse fenômeno, que também passa pelo debate clássico a respeito da Teoria da Regulação, os princípios balizares (autonomia e independência) e seus desdobramentos. Existem, hoje, no Brasil 11 entidades reguladoras. A proposta deste trabalho é explorar como se dá o relacionamento institucional das agências reguladoras com o Parlamento nacional, analisando-se três dessas agências (Anatel, ANTT e Anvisa), devido à saliência dos temas por elas regulados. O objetivo é verificar como se dão as relações políticas entre legisladores e reguladores, e, ao mesmo tempo, identificar os atritos existentes por conta das interferências dos legisladores. Para efetuar tal análise qualitativa, serão feitas entrevistas com reguladores e políticos, revisão da literatura e análise política mais acentuada na atual legislatura (2019-2023).

Patrícia Calca and Viriato Queiroga: “External Shocks and Political Preferences on Income Inequalities: Lessons from Portugal”

Patricia Calca and Viriato Queiroga (CIES-ISCTE) present a paper with the following title: External Shocks and Political Preferences on Income Inequalities: Lessons from Portugal. Here follows the abstract:

“External shocks affect populations’ political perceptions and behavior. Looking at how the economic crisis impacted Europe in the late 2000’s and early 2010’s, we aim at understanding how this external shock affected voter’s perceptions. For a better understanding of this impact at this level, we use survey data (2008, 2012, 2016, and 2018) from Portugal. More specifically we ask how do external shocks frame political preferences on income inequalities? Firstly, we look at institutional (dis)trust, expecting it to suffered an increasing in the aftermath of the shock. Secondly, we analyse how the exposure to the economic shock by the Portuguese population may have affected attitudes on income distribution. Consequently, we should expect that a negative impact of the shock will boost support of income inequality issues along time. Nevertheless, we should see a strong partisanship effect in what regards the defense of income inequality. As individuals are more likely to align around their ideological preferences, citizens with more left party alignments will more likely defend the reduction of income inequality, and right wing aligned the less. The economic shock should contribute to reinforce already existing preferences.​”

António Dias, Filipa Raimundo e Cláudia Almeida: “Why parties’ historical baggage matters. Opposition Successor Parties in Third Wave Democracies”

António Dias (IPRI-UNL and ICS-UL), Filipa Raimundo (ISCTE-IUL) and Claudia Almeida (ICS-UL) present a paper with the following title: Why parties’ historical baggage matters. Opposition Successor Parties in Third Wave Democracies. Here follows the abstract:

“In recent years, many scholars have analysed the success of Authoritarian Successor Parties (ASP) in Third Wave democracies and their effect on the political system, including the survival of the new democratic regime. Still, little attention has been paid to how other parties might relate to the authoritarian past and their effect on the new regimes. To fill this gap, we propose a new political party typology that not only includes ASPs but also Opposition Successor Parties (OSP). Basing our classification on an expert survey which covers 28 third wave democracies around the world, this paper analyses OSPs’ presence in different countries stressing differences in their electoral success. We show that OSPs are relevant actors in most third wave democracies, even if not in all. And we test what is the relationship between ASPs and OSPs success to the quality and the survival of democracy.​”

André Freire: “A representação política descritiva e as carreiras políticas dos deputados no Parlamento Português,1975-2019”

This week SPARC had André Freire, Professor at ISCTE-IUL, presenting. The title of his presentation was: “A representação política descritiva e as carreiras políticas dos deputados no Parlamento Português,1975-2019”. This main goal of this presentation was the following:

“O objetivo é aferir em que medida o Parlamento português reflete, ou não, as principais características sociodemográficas da cidadania e, por essa via, funciona, ou não, como um «Parlamento espelho».”

João Cancela: “Electoral aftershocks: the effects of an earthquake in a multilevel political setting”

João Cancela, Professor from FCSH-UNL, has presented a paper called “Electoral aftershocks: the effects of an earthquake in a multilevel political setting”. Here follows the abstract:

“How do voters react to unexpected and highly consequential events? Research on the electoral effects of such instances, and of natural disasters in particular, has been growing in recent years. The paper adds to this literature by examining two questions: Do voters’ responses to a disaster and its consequences depend on the type of election at stake? And for how long do such electoral effects last? In order to tackle these questions, the paper exploits the aftermath of a 1998 earthquake that hit the mid-Atlantic Azores archipelago, provoking highly asymmetrical levels of damage between and within islands. The results indicate that in the areas that were more affected by the earthquake sanctions to the incumbent depended on the level of government. While the PS was the incumbent party in national and regional office, its vote share only diminished in the following subnational elections, and not in national elections. This punishment effect appears to have faded by 2008, one decade after the earthquake. These findings are particularly relevant in multilevel political settings where the authorities’ capacity to deliver relief efforts might be inhibited due to the economic, political or geographical constraints.​”

Tiago Carvalho: “Contesting Austerity: Social Movements and the Left in Portugal and Spain (2008-2015)​”

Tiago Carvalho, researcher at ISCTE-IUL, has presented a hybrid between his forthcoming book and a tentative paper. The book’s title is: “Generational replacement and Green Party Support in Western Europe”. Here follows the cover blurb:

“Despite the historical and political similarities between Portugal and Spain, the contentious responses to austerity diverged in terms of number, rhythm and players. This book compares the contentious responses to austerity in Portugal and Spain during the Eurozone crisis and the Great Recession between 2008 and 2015. While in Spain a sustained wave of mobilisation lasted for three years, involving various players and leading to a transformation of the party system, in Portugal social movements were only able to mobilise in specific instances, trade unions dominated protest and, by the end of the cycle, institutional change was limited. Contesting Austerity shows that the different trajectories and outcomes in these two countries are connected to the nature and configurations of the players in the mobilisation process. While in Spain actors’ relative autonomy from one another led to deeper political transformation, in Portugal the dominance of the institutional actors limited the extent of that change.”

Wouter van der Brug: “Generational replacement and Green Party Support in Western Europe​”

Wouter van der Brug, Professor from University of Amsterdam, has presented a paper called “Generational replacement and Green Party Support in Western Europe”. Here follows the abstract:

“The current politicization of climate change is accompanied by an unprecedented electoral support for Green parties in Western Europe, especially among young people. This begs the question whether the rise of Green parties is fueled by new generations that were socialized with environmental issues during their ‘formative years.’ This question is addressed by separating age, period and cohort effects on Green party support using CSES data that cover 34 elections in 11 Western European countries. The results show that voters who were socialized when environmental issues were increasingly politicized after the end of cleavage politics show a greater average support for Green parties than earlier generations. The process of ageing contrarily did not affect Green party support. If the environment continues to be salient, Green parties’ may therefore  continue to benefit from the replacement of older voters by young generations who learned to cast their vote based on this issue.”

João Gabriel de Lima: “The Spectre of ‘Globalism’ – New Strategies of Transnational Environmentalism to face Populist Autocrats. The cases of Brazil (2018 – ) and Ecuador (2007-2017)”

João Gabriel de Lima has presented his updated research design with the following title : “The Spectre of ‘Globalism’ – New Strategies of Transnational Environmentalism to face Populist Autocrats. The cases of Brazil (2018 – ) and Ecuador (2007-2017)”.

Here follows the abstract:

In the third wave of autocratization, populist autocrats have chosen transnational advocacy networks as preferential enemies. They use the word “globalism” to describe social movements — like human rights and environmental — and also the epistemic communities related to them. In this project, I will conduct two case studies to investigate how transnational environmentalism is reshaping its strategies to face the new challenge. This work draws on two sets of literature. Modern theories about autocratization show how new populist autocrats destroy democracy slowly. Part of their new strategies is to choose enemies of the “people” and fight civil society movements and their epistemic community (LUHRMANN AND LINDBERG 2019; MÜLLER 2017; MOUNK 2018). In the last twenty years, theorization about transnational advocacy networks has analyzed their tactics and strategies of mobilization. Studies about the struggle between transnational advocacy networks and populist autocrats have only started recently – but they are predominantly focused on the area of human rights (RODRÍGUEZ-GARAVITO AND GÓMEZ 2018). This work, instead, offers a contribution in the area of the environment. By performing a structured comparison of two cases – Jair Bolsonaro’s Brazil and Rafael Correa’s Ecuador– I will map changes in transnational environmentalist movements (ALEXANDER AND BENNETT 2005). I chose the Brazilian and Ecuadorian cases because it will be possible to describe the phenomenon in two different contexts – countries ruled respectively by right- wing and left-wing governments. If the changes are similar to those occurred in human rights movements (RODRÍGUEZ-GARAVITO AND GÓMEZ 2018), they would achieve at least two of the four main areas of policies described by theory (KECK AND SIKKING 1999): communication – with a huge participation of the epistemic community – and leverage, with an expansion of the range of alliances (KECK AND SIKKING 1999). And perhaps the other two: accountability and creation of symbols. The research intends to explain, also, why some areas change while others didn’t.